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黄海浮游植物群落的长期变化(1985—2015)
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作者:栾青杉1 2  康元德1  王俊1 
单位:1. 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所, 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;
2. 青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室, 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266071
关键词:浮游植物 群落结构 年代际变动 黄海 
分类号:S931
出版年·卷·期(页码):2020·27·1(1-11)
摘要:
基于黄海1985-2015年的浮游植物网采调查,研究了群落结构的年代际演变特征,分析了群落组成的差异贡献率。30多年来共记录浮游植物81属202种,硅藻、甲藻是主要的类群。进入2005-2015年,优势属种在北黄海演替为具槽帕拉藻(Paralia sulcata)、角藻(Tripos)、角毛藻(Chaetoceros)、圆筛藻(Coscinodiscus)、原多甲藻(Protoperidinium)等,在南黄海演替为角毛藻、圆筛藻、鼻状藻(Proboscia)、中肋骨条藻(Skeletonema costatum)等。浮游植物总丰度年代际平均为76.2×104个/m3,硅藻丰度比例平均为80.3%,并于2010s下降到67.5%。甲藻丰度在2005-2015年期间有了显著升高,甲硅藻比与1985-2000年相比较平均增加了1.13倍。物种丰富度呈现升高的趋势,在2005-2015年增加了78.9%,暖水种比例上升到平均10.3%,物种多样性北黄海保持稳定,南黄海较1985-2000年增加了28.9%。浮游植物群落的长期演变决定了渔业生物饵料基础的变动,本研究为深入探讨黄海重要渔业水域关键栖息地饵料水平和结构的改变,及其对生态系统食物网结构和渔业生物早期补充过程的影响提供了基础资料及参考依据。
Based on the phytoplankton net samples from the Yellow Sea collected between 1985 and 2015, the interdecadal variations in the community structure were studied and the composition dissimilarities were analyzed. A total of 1125 samples were checked to establish the phytoplankton community structure, including 220 samples from the Northern Yellow Sea and 905 samples from the Southern Yellow Sea. Phytoplankton samples were preserved in 5% formalin water solution after each towing and were kept in dark until analysis. In the laboratory, sub-samples were analyzed for the identification of the species, which were counted using an optical microscope (Leica Biomed). Phytoplankton diversities were represented by species richness (Margalef index), species diversity (Shannon-Weaver index), and species evenness (Pielou index). The dominance of each taxon was calculated using the Dufrene-Legendre index and SIMPER analysis was performed in Past 3.18 software. A total of 81 genera and 202 species were recorded over the past 30 years, with diatoms and dinoflagellates being the major groups. There were 58 genera and 142 taxa of diatoms, 20 genera and 57 taxa of dinoflagellates, 2 genera and 2 species of silicoflagellates, and one species of Euglena. The species number of diatoms accounted for 62.4%, 69.1%, 74.4%, and 62.6% of the total in the 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s, respectively. However, this proportion was only 47.5% during the summer seasons; in contrast to the dinoflagellate proportion, which was 52.3%. In 2005-2015, the dominant taxa were Paralia sulcata, Tripos, Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, and Protoperidinium in the Northern Yellow Sea, while in the Southern Yellow Sea, they were Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Proboscia, and Skeletonema costatum. As for the species ecotypes, there were no obvious variations in the eurythermal species, which were 67.4% and 71.8% during 1985-2000 and 2005-2015 century, respectively. However, during 2005-2015, there was an average increase in warm water species of 10.3%. The interdecadal average abundance of total phytoplankton was 76.2×104 ind/m3, of which 80.3% was diatoms, which declined to 67.5% during 1985-2000. During 2005-2015, the average abundances of the total phytoplankton, diatoms, and dinoflagellates were 140×104 ind/m3, 132×104 ind/m3, and 8.4×104 ind/m3, respectively, which had 6.0, 6.1, and 4.7 times increase compared to 1985-2000. In the Northern Yellow Sea, their abundances were 134×104 ind/m3, 121×104 ind/m3, and 12.9×104 ind/m3, while in the Southern Yellow Sea they were 145×104 ind/m3, 140×104 ind/m3, and 5.1×104 ind/m3, respectively. There was a dramatic increase in the dinoflagellate abundance and the ratio of dinoflagellates to diatoms increased by 1.13 times when compared to 1985-2000. In addition, this ratio had marked seasonality, with 7.29 times increase during the summer seasons compared to the other seasons. The average abundances of Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, P. sulcata, Tripos, and Noctiluca scintillans were 189×103 ind/m3, 29.6×103 ind/m3, 126×103 ind/m3, 63.3×103 ind/m3, and 3.19×103 ind/m3, which had increases 11, 3.24, 11.5, 4.7, and 1.54 times, respectively, during 2005-2015. Similarly, in 2005-2015, the phytoplankton species richness in the Yellow Sea increased by 78.9%. The species diversity was maintained in the Northern Yellow Sea, while it increased by 28.9% in the Southern Yellow Sea, compared to 1985-2000. The long-term variations in the phytoplankton communities determine the variability in the diet composition and food basis of fishery resources. Research found that the fishery community structures had gradually declined with smaller sizes, low commercial value species, and young individuals in the catches. This is in conjunction with human fishing activities, environmental variability, as well as diets for the food base. From the perspective of the phytoplankton diets, this research provides basic data and references for further discussing the effects of phytoplankton changes on the ecosystem food web structure and early recruitment of fishery resources in the crucial habitats of the important fisheries in the Yellow Sea.
该文献标准引用格式:
LUAN Qingshan, KANG Yuande, WANG Jun.Long-term changes within the phytoplankton community in the Yellow Sea (1985-2015)[J].Journal of Fishery Sciences of China,2020,27(1):1-11.[栾青杉, 康元德, 王俊.黄海浮游植物群落的长期变化(1985—2015)[J].中国水产科学,2020,27(1):1-11.]
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